Different Types of ROBOTS

Robot is a modern invention that is sturdily constructed with mechanical as well as electrical units and is automated to perform various tasks that humans can perform. Different types of robots are designed to perform different tasks in various fields. Besides, tasks delegated to robots have grown swiftly. The robots categorized as per their application are as follows:

Mobile Robots
Mobile robots are also known as Automated Guided Vehicles that are primarily used for the work of material transportation in large workplaces such as warehouses, hospitals, container ports and alike. They function in such areas with the help of wires or lasers, by sensing the environment in which they operate.

An advanced version of AGV is known as Self Guided Vehicle (SGV). Such robots are PatrolBot, Speci-Minder, Golfer, Tug, and so on. These robots can be taught navigation separately in a particular environment. Moreover, such robots also have competency to conduct non-sequential tasks in complex environments. Because of this, they are also referred to as intelligent robots.

Industrial Robots

As industrial tasks require accuracy, speed, reliability as well as endurance, industrial robots have potentially replaced humans in performing those tasks. In the last 30 years, robots have attained an edge in automated production lines. Many industrial robots these days perform palletizing as well as packaging, laboratory applications and dispensing jobs.

Telerobots

Such type of robots function at places, which are not safe or inaccessible for humans. An operator placed at a certain distance from the telerobot commands it with the aid of space shuttle. Laparoscopic surgery is one such thing that is performed with telerobots.

Telerobots are also used for exploration of space. Some of the applications of these robots are for construction of spaceships, maintenance of satellites, development of space station and alike. These robots have also found their application in military and are increasingly used by US military.

Robots in agriculture
There are many robots that are still in an experimental stage and have been used to pick apples, gather harvest, plant seeds and transplant seedlings. Moreover, there is one such robot in Australia that is used to shear sheep.

Service Robots

These types of robots are used in Japan and are divided into two categories; one is for professional use and the other one is for personal use. Professional robots are used for military purposes, to perform underwater tasks and clean harmful materials. Personal robots are appreciated for their artificial intelligence and used in house cleaning, caring of elders, entertainment and so on.

Development of robots is a boon for humans and this invention is surely going to make things way easier for humans in future.



TALON / SWORDS Platforms 


The TALON is a man-portable robot operating on small treads. It weighs less than 100 lbs (45 kg) in its base configuration. TALON is designed to be very durable -- one of the robots reportedly fell off a bridge and into a river in Iraq . Some time later, the soldiers set up the TALON's control unit and simply drove it out of the river [ ref ]. That brings up another important feature of the TALON -- it's amphibious. TALON is operated with a joystick control, has seven speed settings (top speed is 6 feet/1.8 meters per second) and can use its treads to climb stairs, maneuver through rubble and even take on snow.


Versatility has been designed into the TALON as well, with multiple possible configurations available that adapt the robot to the situation at hand. The basic TALON includes audio and video listening devices and a mechanical arm. A lightweight (60-lb/27-kg) version omits the arm. TALONs were used for search and rescue at WTC Ground Zero, and they have been used in Bosnia , Afghanistan and Iraq for the disposal of live grenades , improvised explosive devices and other dangerous explosives.


Recently, the TALON has taken on an even bigger role. All TALONs are now equipped with chemical, gas, temperature and radiation sensors. "TALON robots are being configured with M240 or M249 machine guns or Barrett 50-caliber rifles and grenade launchers and anti-tank rockets," according to manufacturer Foster-Miller.

 

BigDog

The Most Advanced Quadruped Robot on Earth
BigDog is the alpha male of the Boston Dynamics family of robots. It is a quadruped robot that walks, runs, and climbs on rough terrain and carries heavy loads. BigDog is powered by a gasoline engine that drives a hydraulic actuation system. BigDog's legs are articulated like an animal's, and have compliant elements that absorb shock and recycle energy from one step to the next. BigDog is the size of a large dog or small mule, measuring 1 meter long, 0.7 meters tall and 75 kg weight. BigDog has an on-board computer that controls locomotion, servos the legs and handles a wide variety of sensors. BigDog's control system manages the dynamics of its behavior to keep it balanced, steer, navigate, and regulate energetics as conditions vary. Sensors for locomotion include joint position, joint force, ground contact, ground load, a laser gyroscope, and a stereo vision system. Other sensors focus on the internal state of BigDog, monitoring the hydraulic pressure, oil temperature, engine temperature, rpm, battery charge and others. BigDog can move at a trot, climb slopes and carry multiple rucksacks and gear.BigDog is being developed by Boston Dynamics with help from Foster Miller, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Harvard University Concord Field Station.Development is funded by the DARPA Defense Sciences Office.

 


 

 

Flying Bots: Global Hawk and Pointer


The military uses several different flying robots, mainly for reconnaissance . Instead of UGVs, these are known as UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles), and they are sometimes referred to as drones . UAVs look like model aircraft, and they range in size from small planes that can be held by a person and launched with a good throw, like the FQM-151 Pointer, to full-size airplanes that operate by remote control, like the RQ-4A Global Hawk.

 

 

 

Global Hawk Specifications

•  Length: 44 ft 4.75 in (13.53 m)

•  Wingspan: 116 ft 2.5 in (35.42 m)

•  Height: 15 ft 2.5 in (4.64 m)

•  Weight empty: 14,800 lb (6,710 kg)

•  Weight max: 25,600 lb (11,600 kg)

•  Speed: 403 mph (648 kph)

•  Ceiling: 65,000 ft (19,800 m)

•  Range: 11,730 nautical miles (21,720 km)

•  Endurance: 36 hours

•  Propulsion: Rolls-Royce/Allison F137-AD-100 turbofan

 

Flying Bots: Predator


Reconnaissance plays a key role in military planning -- drones help military commanders keep track of their own troops and also spot enemy troops that might be waiting to ambush U.S. soldiers.

 


MQ-1 Predator UAV

Flying robots like the Predator provide constant real-time data on troop movements, enemy locations and weather. In at least one case, a flying robot did a lot more than just spot the enemy: Predators can be fitted with Hellfire missiles, and when one of these Air Force drones spotted an anti-aircraft gun in southern Iraq in March 2003, it used one of the Hellfires to take it out.

 

 

nsect Robots/Cyborgs

The Pentagon is trying to develop "insect cyborgs" able to sniff out explosives, or "bug" conversations by lurking unseen in enemy hideouts with micro-transmitters strapped to their bodies. The U.S. Department of Defense is considering fielding an army of remote-controlled insect spybots as scouts. DARPA, says it is seeking "innovative proposals to develop technology to create insect cyborgs," by implanting tiny devices into insect bodies while the animals are in their larva or pupal stage.

The devices DARPA wants to implant are micro-electro-mechanical systems, or MEMS. MEMS technology uses tiny silicon wafers like those used as the basis for computer microchips. But instead of merely laying circuits on them, MEMS technology can actually cut and shape the silicon, turning the chip into a microscopic mechanical device. This transforms the insects into "predictable devices that can be used for various micro-UAV missions requiring unobtrusive entry into areas inaccessible or hostile to humans."

Cornell University has implanted a silicon chips inside flying insects to control their movement. The results were published June 22 by AZoNano . These “insect cyborg sentinels” ranging from cicadas to dragonflies are a new pass in cyborg technology. The project intends to control the insects' movement by motion trajectories obtained from GPS coordinates or from using an ultrasonic based remote control. Gaining control of an insect's movement is necessary because it enables scientists to position the insect in an area where a toxic substance is suspected to be present

Insect Cyborg Sentinels combine living system technology with nanosystem technology, taking the best that a living system has with the best that engineers can do in building nanosystem technologies. Insects can fly up to two weeks without stopping, possessing an aerodynamic ability well developed over millions of years of evolution. The future shows DARPA arming these cyborgs with SWARM technology to be used as an offensive asset as well. The project is funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) which has a full Hybrid Insect Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (HI-MEMS) Program. ($2 million HI-MEMS program).

 

Many of today's military robots are still somewhat limited in their autonomy and their range. They are essentially tethered to human controllers. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Black Ops government think tank researches develops future technologies for the new military, recently held a widely publicized robot race to see how far along robot AI has come. Modern AI is still somewhat limited but advancements are accelerating exponentially at an alarming rate. From massive troop transports to micro-nano spybots it is expected that by 2025 the battlefield will be a hybrid blend of soldier and cyborg robot.

 

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